डोगरी-राकेश वर्मा , जम्मू 

डोगरी-राकेश वर्मा , जम्मू

डोगरी भारत के जम्मू और कश्मीर प्रान्त में बोली जाने वाली एक भाषा है। वर्ष 2004 में इसे भारतीय संविधान की आठवीं अनुसूची में शामिल किया गया है। पश्चिमी पहाड़ी बोलियों के परिवार में, मध्यवर्ती पहाड़ी पट्टी की जनभाषाओं में, डोगरी, चंबयाली, मडवाली, मंडयाली, बिलासपुरी, बागडी आदि उल्लेखनीय हैं।डोगरी भाषा भारत के जम्मू-कश्मीर राज्य की दूसरी मुख्य भाषा है। यह भारोपीय भाषा परिवार के भारतीय-आर्य भाषा समूह की सदस्य है। इसका मूल प्राचीन भारतीय-आर्य भाषा समूह और लौकिक संस्कृत में स्थित है। अन्य आधुनिक भारतीय-आर्य भाषाओं के समान डोगरी भी विकास के प्राचीन भारतीय-आर्य (संस्कृत) और मध्य भारतीय-आर्य (पालि, प्राकृत और अपभ्रंश) चरणों से गुज़र चुकी है और इसने लगभग 10वीं शताब्दी में आधुनिक भारतीय-आर्य चरण में प्रवेश किया। इसमें ध्वनि संरचना में विकास की तीन स्तरीय प्रक्रिया दिखाई देती है, जो शौरसेनी प्राकृत से इसकी निकटता को प्रदर्शित करती है, लेकिन वैदिक काल से इसके वर्तमान स्वरूप तक विकास के दौरान डोगरी ने सभी चरणों की विशेषताओं को संरक्षित रखा है, जैसा डोगरी शब्द पुत्तर, यानी ‘बेटा’ (प्राचीन भारतीय-आर्य पुत्र, मध्य भारतीय-पुत्त) में दिखाई देता है।
डोगरी इस विशाल परिवार में कई कारणों से विशिष्ट जनभाषा है। इसकी पहली विशेषता यह है कि दूसरी बोलियों की अपेक्षा इसके बोलनेवालों की संख्या विशेष रूप से अधिक है। दूसरी यह कि इस परिवार मे केवल डोगरी ही साहित्यिक रूप से गतिशील और सम्पन्न है। डोगरी की तीसरी विशिष्टता यह भी है कि एक समय यह भाषा कश्मीर रियासत तथा चंबा राज्य में राजकीय प्रशासन के अंदरूनी व्यवहार का माध्यम रह चुकी है। इसी भाषा के संबंध से इसके बोलने वाले डोगरे कहलाते हैं तथा डोगरी के भाषाई क्षेत्र को सामान्यतः “डुग्गर” कहा जाता है।रियासत जम्मू कश्मीर की शरतकालीन राजधानी जम्मू नाम का ऐतिहासिक नगर, डोगरी की साहित्यिक साधना का प्रमुख केंद्र है, जहाँ डोगरी के साहित्यिकों का प्रतिनिधि संगठन “डोगरी संस्था” के नाम से, इस भाषा के साहित्यिक योगक्षेम के लिये गत लगभग ६० वर्षो से प्रयत्नशील है।
इसकी शब्दावली पर फ़ारसी और अंग्रेज़ी का प्रभाव भी देखा सकता है। डोगरी भाषा पश्चिमोत्तर भारत के पर्वतीय और उपपर्वतीय क्षेत्रों तथा इससे सटे मैदानों में बोली जाती है। यह क्षेत्र उत्तर में पीरपंजाल और धौलाधार पर्वतश्रेणियों, दक्षिण में पंजाब के मैदानों, पूर्व में सतलुज नदी और पश्चिम में मुनव्वर तवी से घिरा हुआ है।
डोगरी पंजाबी की उपबोली है – यह भ्रांत धारणा डॉ॰ ग्रियर्सन के भाषाई सर्वेक्षण के प्रशंसनीय कार्य में डोगरी के पंजाबी की उपबोली के रूप में उल्लेख से फैली। इसमें उनका दोष नहीं। उस समय उनके इन सर्वेक्षण में प्रत्येक भाषा, बोली का स्वतंत्र गंभीर अध्ययन संभव नहीं था।
जॉन बीम्ज ने भारतीय भाषा विज्ञान की रूपरेखा संबंधी अपनी पुस्तक (प्रकाशित 1866 ई॰) में स्पष्ट रूप से उल्लेख किया है कि डोगरी ना तो कश्मीरी की अंगभूत बोली है, ना पंजाबी की। उन्होंने इसे भारतीय-जर्मन परिवार की आर्य शाखा की प्रमुख 11 भाषाओं में गिना है। डॉ॰ सिद्धेश्वर वर्मा ने भी डोगरी की गणना भारत की प्रमुख सात सीमांत भाषाओं में की है। डोगरी की अपनी एक लिपि है जिसे टाकरी या टक्करी लिपि कहते हैं। यह लिपि काफी पुरानी है। गुरमुखी लिपि का प्रादुर्भाव इसी से माना जाता है। कुल्लू तथा चंबा के कुछ प्राचीन ताम्रपट्टों से ज्ञात होता है कि इस लिपि का प्रारंभिक रूप में विकास 10 वीं- 11वीं शताब्दी में हो गया था। वैसे टाकरी वर्ग के अंतर्गत आने वाली कई लिपियाँ इस विस्तृत प्रदेश में प्रचलित हैं जैसे, लंडे, किश्तवाड़ी, चंबयाली, मंडयाली, सिरमौरी और कुल्लूई आदि। डॉ॰ ग्रियर्सन शारदा को और टाकरी को सहोदरा मानते हैं। श्री व्हूलर का मत है कि टाकरी शारदा की आत्मजा है। टाकरी लिपि आज भी डुग्गर के देहाती समाज में बहीखातों में प्रयुक्त होती है। इसका एक विकसित रूप भी है जिसमें कई ग्रंथों का प्रकाशन हुआ है। कश्मीर नरेश महाराज रणवीर सिंह ने, आज से लगभग एक सौ वर्ष पूर्व, अपने राज्यकाल में, डोगरी लिपि में, नागरी के अनुरूप, सुधार करने का प्रयत्न किया था। मात्रा, चिह्नों के प्रयोग को अपनाया गया तथा पहली बार नई टाकरी लिपि में डोगरी भाषा के ग्रंथों के मुद्रण की समुचित व्यवस्था के लिये जम्मू में शासन की ओर से रणवीर प्रेस की स्थापना की गई।
गत वर्ष मे डोगरी भाषा को प्रोत्साहन देते हुए भारतीय रेलवे ने जम्मू तवी रेल्वे स्टेशन मे डोगरी की टाकरी लिपी को हिन्दी तथा अंग्रजी भाषा के साथ स्टेशन के बोर्ड पर  प्रस्तुत किया है! डोगरी भाषा के प्रसार तथा प्रचार को द्यान मे रखते हुए दूरदर्शन केंदर तथा रेडियो कश्मीर जम्मू लगातार कार्यर्त हें! इसके अलावा कई गैर सरकारी संसत्थान और निजी साहियतकार, लेखक अपने अपने स्तर पर कार्य कर रहे हें ! डोगरी भाषा को प्सोत्साहन देने के लिए जम्मू कश्मीर अकादेमी ऑफ आर्ट कल्चर एंड लंगूयगेस जम्मू, निजी कलाकारो तथा साहित्यकारों की लगातार सहायता करती रही है !

राकेश वर्मा , जम्मू

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